There are more than 60 universities in the U.K. They are divided into free types. First, these are old universities, such as Oxford, Cambridge and Edinburgh Universities. Second, these are the 19th century universities, such as London and Manchester, and at last there are the new universities. Some years ago there were also polytechnics. After graduating from a polytechnic a student got a degree, but it was not a university degree. 31polytechnics were given university status in 1992..

English universities differ from each other in traditions, general organization, internal government, etc. British universities are comparatively small, the approximate number is about 7-8 thousand students. Some universities have under 3,000 students, some even less than 1,500 ones. The most famous universities in Britain are Oxford and Cambridge. They are the two oldest English universities and they both have a long and eventful history of their own. Oxford and Cambridge are regarded as being academically superior to other universities and as giving special privilege and prestige. The number of students in each of them is about 20,000. Cambridge University consists of a group of 32 independent colleges. All British universities are private institutions. Students have to pay fees and living costs, but every student may obtain a personal grant from local authorities.

Students studying for first degrees are known as «undergraduates». They have lectures, there are regular seminars. After four years the students will take their finals. Those who pass examinations successfully are given the Bachelor’s degree: Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science. Students who have completed a first degree are eligible to undertake a postgraduate degree, which includes Master's degree (typically taken in one year), Doctorate degree (typically taken in three years). The first postgraduate degree is Master of Arts, Master of Science. Doctor of Philosophy is the highest degree.

The Open University was founded in 1969 and started its first course in 1971. The Open University offers degrees for people who do not have a formal education and qualifications, or who are much older than 16. Students study at home and then post their paper off to a tutor for marking. Most courses take six years and students get a number of credits for each year’s work. About 120000 people have enrolled since then.


a polytechnic– политехнический колледж, политехникум;

approximate –приблизительный;

to regard –расценивать, рассматривать, считать;

a superior –что-л., превосходящее по качеству;

fee and living cost –плата за обучение и проживание;

fall into –делиться на категории;

attendance –посещение;

compulsory –обязательный;

to outline –обрисовать в общих чертах;

the general scope –общее представление;

a subject matter –предмет, тема;

a tutor –наставник;

eligible –имеющий право, пригодный, подходящий;

to enroll –поступать.


Britain is full of customs and traditions which are famous all over the world.

When people think of Britain they often think of people drinking tea and eating fish and chips. Britain is a tea-drinking nation. Every day British people drink 165 million cups of tea. Tea in Britain is traditionally brewed in a warmed china teapot. Most Britons like their tea strong and dark, but with a lot of milk. Milk is poured into the cup first, so as not to crack the china. Fish and chips is the classic English take-away food and is the traditional national food of England. The fish is fried in flour and is eaten with chips. Traditionally, the fish and chips are covered with salt and vinegar and, using your fingers, eaten straight out of the newspaper which they were wrapped in. Nowadays small wooden forks are provided and the fish and chips are wrapped in more hygienic paper.

There are English and British traditions of sport, music and many royal occasions. England's national sports are cricket, rugby and golf although many people think of football (soccer) as their national sport. Football is the most popular sport. British climate makes it possible to play football all the year round. Some of England's football teams are world famous: Manchester United, Arsenal and Liverpool.

Many traditions are connected with the Royal family. For example, the Queen celebrates two birthdays. The Queen's actual birthday is on the 21-st of April, 1926. But on this day there is no particular ceremony. It has long been customary to celebrate the Sovereign’s birthday on a day during the summer, when the weather better. Since 1805, the Sovereign’s 'official' summer birthday has been marked by the Trooping the Colour ceremony, which is also known as the Queen's Birthday Parade, and is normally held on the second Saturday in June.

Some traditions are connected with the historical places. For example, ravens have become an inseparable part of the Tower. There is a legend: “The Tower of London will collapse and the kingdom will fall if all the ravens leave”. The tourists can observe a famous Ceremony of the Keys in the Tower too.

Customs and traditions are strictly observed in the Parliament. In the annual State Opening of Parliament ceremony, The Queen opens Parliament in person, and addresses both Houses in The Queen's Speech. The Lords in the House of Lords use to “vote with their feet”, that means that they go through this or that door if they are for or against a new law. The Speaker in the House of Commons sits on the wool-sack, because wool provided the prosperity of Britain.

We can also speak about traditional festivals, as April Fool’s Day or Guy Fawkes Night, the ceremony of First Foot in Scotland during the New Year Celebration or Edinburgh festival.

To make a long story short, Great Britain is a country full of tradition. People like them and revere them as a part of their history.


The growth of tourism as an industry produces significant benefits to a country's economic development in a number of ways, including income for the local population, employment opportunities, social and cultural development of infrastructure. However, since tourism is a service-based industry, it can be more difficult to market than tangible goods. The use of appropriate promotional campaigns, targeted to a global audience or a specific segment of society can boost the tourism industry of a country with remarkable results.

Advertising - a phenomenon that exists by itself as a means of communication or messages aimed at attracting attention, since ancient times. Its history is closely connected with the development of production and exchange of goods. In today's world advertising has firmly taken the leading position and become the phenomenon of economic, information and communication, general cultural (because advertising is one of the most striking phenomena of mass culture). The tourist advertising carries the information that is presented in a concise, artistic expression of form, emotionally colored and brings the most important information and facts about tourism products and tourist enterprises to the consciousness of potential consumers.

Advertising gives the consumer the knowledge, experience, increase satisfaction of his purchase. Through advertising tourist enterprises adopt new markets. As a means of competition, advertising helps to improve the quality of tourist service.

The general goal of advertising is to increase sales, either immediately or in future. The main function of advertising is to inform customers of goods or services and influence people’s choice.

Advertising can be classified into two broad categories: informative and persuasive. Typically any advert contains elements of both. When a product is first launched, sales are low because very few customers are aware of its existence. The role of advertising here is to inform the public of the product’s existence and its particular use. The same applies when the product has been modified or improved.

Persuasive advertising is used to try and persuade a consumer to buy a particular product. Such advertising is subjective and contains many statements of opinion rather than facts.

Once a tourist company has decided on running the advertising campaign it must decide on the message, the mass media and the receiver. In many cases the choice of a message and a kind of mass media depends on the receiver that is called - target audience.


The history of tourism in Russia dates back to the 15-th century. It was the time when Russian merchants, and Nikitin among them, traveled to Persia, India and Africa and then described these wonderful countries, discovering them to Russian people.

We are proud that great Russian travelers: Dezhnev, Khabarov, Sedov, Barents, Bering and many-many others discovered new rich lands and water ways in Siberia, attracting people’s attention to this unusual region.

Since the epoch of Peter I Russian nobility went abroad on business and educative trips. During this period Russian roads and transport became much better. In the 18-th century it was considered a tradition to send children to get education and master foreign languages abroad.

The first excursion societies were established at the end of the 19-th century. They promoted the development of museums, exhibitions and people’s mobility.

During the Soviet period tourism mainly developed within the vast territory of the Soviet Union. The most popular destination were Moscow- the capital of the multinational country, Leningrad – “the birthplace of the revolution”, the Crimea, the Caucasus and the Baltic republics. The trips beyond our borders were very rare and they were unaffordable for common people.

Since the end of the 20-th century tourism in Russia has rapidly grown: first inner tourism and then international tourism as well. Rich cultural heritage and great natural variety place Russia among the most popular tourist destinations in the world. The country contains 23 UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Major tourist routes in Russia include a travel around the Golden Ring of ancient cities, cruises on the big rivers like the Volga, and long journeys on the famous Trans-Siberian Railway. Most popular tourist destinations in Russia are Saint Petersburg (which appeared in the list of top visited cities of Europe in 2010) and Moscow. Moscow and Saint Petersburg possess such world-famous museums as the Hermitage and the Tretyakov Gallery, outstanding theaters like Bolshoi and Mariinsky, unique churches like Saint Basil's Cathedral, Cathedral of Christ the Saviour, Saint Isaac's Cathedral and Church of the Savior on Blood, impressive fortifications like Moscow Kremlin and Peter and Paul Fortress, beautiful squares like Red Square and Palace Square, and streets like Tverskaya and Nevsky Prospect

The most famous natural tourist destination in Russia is the Lake Baikal, named the Blue Eye of Siberia. This unique lake, the deepest in the world, has crystal-clean waters and is surrounded by taiga mountains.

Nowadays tourism has become a source of income and employment, especially for the regions with underdeveloped economy. Thanks to tourism, which attracts currency and provides working places to the local population, roads and transport facilities, trade and entertainment infrastructure also become better. Tourism gives an impulse to the development of food, wine and light industries.


Our future profession will be connected with organizing different types of traveling. People can go sightseeing or on business-trips, they can dream of visiting famous cities or simply relaxing. So there are following types of tourism: inner and international, passive and active, religious and ecological, recreational and business, extreme and sport tourism.

Nowadays it has become much easier to go traveling. Transport facilities have become more comfortable and quicker. We can make a voyage by a ship or visit other countries by airplane, train or bus. Every type of transport has its advantages and disadvantages, for example a flight by air is the fastest means of traveling, but air-tickets are the most expensive. Traveling by train you can relax, watch DVD or simply look at the passing landscapes through the window. But this type of transport still lack comfort and is rather slow.

If you want your trip be a success you should think about some important aspects in advance.

In the first place you should thoroughly choose your route and hotels where you plan to stay. Here a tourist agency can be very helpful. They can also assist in getting a visa and booking tickets. The sooner you book tickets, the less they will cost. A return ticket is usually cheaper than a one-way ticket. Or you can book tickets and hotels yourself by Internet.

In the second place you should correctly choose a season of traveling, for example, in summer and autumn it is extremely hot in Asia and Africa. Then you should pack your belongings in order to fit every occasion. Choosing of your partners for a traveling is also an aspect of great importance.

And now I’d like to tell you about one of my trips.


With the advent of modern technology, transportation infrastructure has improved. Nowadays different types of transportation are available for tourists from a bike to an airplane and from a personal car to a huge cruise ship. In order to choose the transportation, one should keep in mind the distance of one's trip and also time that one has.

When traveling for a rather short distance we can choose two types of transportation: a car and a tourist bus. These types of transportation have their own advantages and disadvantages. The advantage of using own car is that we can enjoy the convenience of driving. We do not need to take permission from any one to start our trip or to make a stop. We can listen to our favorite radio news and can use air condition as cool as we like. In other words we do not have to concern about the comfort of other people. The disadvantage of car is that it is rather expensive taking into account the price for petrol.

The benefit of tourist bus is that it is affordable. You simply join the group of tourists and stop worrying. Everything is made by a guide. The drawback of a bus is that we have to aware how bus system works since every bus has its own specific routes and names.

The majority of tourists like traveling for long distances. In these cases they should consider trains, airplanes and cruise ships. Cruise ships are believed to be the most comfortable though the most expensive way of traveling. Usually they provide various cuisines on the principle “All-inclusive”, different entertainment and excursions.

The train is much cheaper but sometimes the cars are old and not very comfortable. You are locked in your compartment and have to communicate with strangers. But it is very safe. Besides you can take a lot of luggage.

The airplane becomes more and more popular. The earlier you buy tickets the cheaper they are. You can also enjoy some discounts due to promotion campaigns. The flight by an airplane is swift, comfortable. But there are also some disadvantages. You can take only the allowed quantity of luggage, you must not take some articles, as knifes of liquids into the cabin and you must come to the airport 2-3 hours before.

Whatever type of transport you may choose you should remember that you traveling will be successful if you are optimist and enjoy every moment of you trip.

Appendix III


Name: Emily Alison Biggis
Address: 47 Pulley Hill London SW 16 4QX The UK
Tel.: +03 475 48 65
Date of birth: 15 July 19XX
Marital status: Single
Nationality: British
Objective: To secure a part-time position that offers a variety of tasks, in which to use my secretarial skills and knowledge of foreign languages
Dates: 19XX – 19XX
College: South Thames College, London
Qualifications: Secretarial Courses
Dates: 20XX – 20XX
College: Oxleigh Secretarial College, Oxleigh
Qualifications: Secretarial Skills Refresher Course, Computer Course
Dates: 20XX – to present
Company: Philip Wilson Publishing Ltd.
Position: Secretary to the Sales Manager
Responsibilities: Typing and work with correspondence, office support, organizing the meetings
Other skills: A clean driver’s license, a good knowledge of Spanish and French. My personal interests include classical literature reading, travelling, modern jazz and swimming
References References are available on request