Some Thoughts on Creativity  

Some Thoughts on Creativity

Any individual can acquire the tools of a trade. As he learns to use these tools he becomes technically competent.

The ability to create exists in every individual in varying degree and according to inclination. The domains where one may exert his effort are sufficiently varied to offer each individual an opportunity to exhibit originality. The growth of mental potentialities through experimentation with the creative process broadens the individual’s capacity of original contribution.

The techniques previously studied in this book are auxiliary tools. To employ these tools successfully requires not only creative ability but also an environment conducive to the generation and development of new ideas. It is generally understood that severe regimentation stifles creative talent This, of course, is not to say that there should be no goals, no objectives. Goals and objectives are sometimes necessary to express the creativity. When they are not apparent, they are intrinsically present. However, new fields of knowledge are frequently opened and explored as a result of the revolt of creative individuals against regimentation. One need not labour this point in order to arrive at the conclusion that even in fields of practical endeavor a compromise is required to provide an atmosphere sympathetic to both applied and basic research. Today both government and industry have become acutely aware of such a need and here and there have set out to create an atmosphere conducive to the generation of ideas.

Grammar Review

Remember

It is … that (which, who, when, where)

To do + verb

Give Russian equivalents:

  1. It is this study of the nervous system that requires a number of such techniques.
  2. It is during cellular division that DNA is reproduced.
  3. It was with the help of metallic salts that it was possible to study certain tissue.
  4. It is this text which presents an integrated approach to the traditional diagnostic methods.
  5. It is from a plant that aspirin got its name (spirea plant).
  6. The work does provide a source of information on these two relatively new methods.
  7. The finding that this substance does have a great effect was significant.
  8. Few fibres do contain fat cells.

I. Give English equivalents:

  1. Я хочу, чтобы проверили эту гипотезу.
  2. Мы хотели бы, чтобы результаты огласили.
  3. Хотелось бы, чтобы оценили достоинства работы.
  4. Я хочу, чтобы понаблюдали за реакцией.
  5. Ему хотелось бы, чтобы факты были установлены вовремя.
  6. Хотелось бы, чтобы метод был проверен немедленно.
  7. Мы хотели, чтобы курс завершили.

BACKGROUND

  1. Фон, задний план;
  2. Данные, исходные данные; основа база, факты
  3. происхождение, история вопроса
  4. сведения, состав, аспект
  5. в контексте, учитывая
  6. квалификация, образование
  7. стаж

III. Translate the sentences paying attention to the word “pattern”:

  1. The background levels were the same.
  2. The two diseases have common etiologic background.
  3. The background of these phenomena remained unresolved until the latter part of the 1970s.
  4. This term has many meanings depending on the background and expertise.
  5. This review will attempt to evaluate critically the most recent information and, against the background of what is already known, outline the current role of this phenomenon.
  6. The present study was aimed to form a background for future studies with mutant animals.

Unit 14

Read and translate the text:

Text

Rationalization

We protect ourselves from facing facts by cleverly twisting our thinking. This twisting is called “rationalization”. When we rationalize we think up a reason to justify whatever we do or think.

It seems we see what people are talking about as long as they don’t mean us. Rationalization enables us to hurt other people’s feelings under the noble manner of “honest frankness”. It also lets us get mad at the “unwarranted rudeness” of other people when they do the same thing. Rationalization enables us to spend extravagantly when we want to, under the high-sounding ideal of “keeping money in circulation”. It also permits us to act like a tightwad when we so desire because after all, “A penny saved is a penny earned”. Rationalization lets us judge groups we do not like by their worst examples. Rationalization enables us to stir up trouble among people because “a person has a right to know what is being said about him by people who pretend to be his friends.” It also lets us condemn other people when they do the same thing, because “there is no troublemaker like someone who gossips and spreads rumours.” In short, when we rationalize, we can explain anything and everything in such a way that no matter what we do, we are always right and the other fellow is always wrong, even when he does the same thing!” Every man of a man is right in his own eyes,” the Bible warns us.

Grammar Review

I. Give Russian equivalents:

  1. The history of the last 30 years shows him to have done very well.
  2. This allowed the rules to be followed.
  3. We know him to have established a school of his own.
  4. They considered all water on the surface of the planet to have been liberated by volcanic action.
  5. This analysis permitted them to tackle the problem directly.
  6. This information enabled forecasts for the next few years to be made.
  7. We know him to have objected to this style of research on previous occasions.

II. Translate into English:

  1. Многие ученые принимают участие в обсуждении проблем, связанных с лечением этих болезней.
  2. Обсуждаемый метод был разработан в нашей лаборатории.
  3. Во время проведения опыта исследователи заметили некоторые изменения.
  4. После усовершенствования старого метода коллеги получили новые данные.
  5. Показанные слайды представляют интерес для студентов.
  6. Используя совершенно новый метод, автор пришел к интересному заключению.
  7. Обсуждаемая книга написана руководителем нашего отдела.
  8. Авторы статьи, использовавшие другие методы, получили такие же результаты.

Phrasal Verbs

FALL

Fall about падать от хохота

Fall abreast of идти в ногу с

Fall across встретить случайно

Fall among попасть случайно

Fall apart распадаться

Fall asleep засыпать

Fall away покинуть; уменьшаться; зачахнуть, засохнуть

Fall back прибегнуть

Fall behind отставать

Fall down упасть; разрушиться, рухнуть

Fall for поверить; влюбиться

Fall in рухнуть, обвалиться

Fall into начинать; распадаться на; относиться к

Fall off отпадать, отвалиться

Fall on нападать, наброситься

Fall out выпадать

Fall over опрокинуться; споткнуться; увлекаться

Fall through провалиться, потерпеть неудачу

Fall to начинать, приниматься за что-либо

Fall under подвергаться

Fall upon нападать, натолкнуться

Make up the sentences of your own using the verbs.

Unit 15

Read and translate the text:

Text

Our Mind

Our mind has a set of functions that may be characterized as analytical, rational, logical, linear, computational and reactive. It also has a set of functions that are intuitive, creative, relational and receptive. The left hemisphere of the brain is predominantly concerned with the former set of intellectual functions; the right hemisphere is predominantly concerned with the latter intuitive functions. The left side of our brain helps us to be smart; the right side helps us to be wise. The left side helps to analyse (how much gasoline we can buy at the service station); the right side tunes us in the being who plays the role of a service station attendant.

Our Way of Seeing Things

We have no right to assume that our way of seeing things is the only proper way; we have no right to assume that people who disagree with us are fools. We are different from the other people by heredity, and we are different from them by training too. Our point of view is different and our interests are different; hence, we can expect that people with other points of view will reach other conclusions based on their points of view, experiences and data.

Grammar Review

I. Give Russian equivalents:

  1. Leading authorities have devoted much time to improve the medical care given to these patients.
  2. This new publication aims to provide a practical guide for psychologists.
  3. To permit better knowledge of computed finding, other studies are presented for comparison.
  4. The book is to be used by every member of the care unit.
  5. To understand the basic signs of the problem is a desire of every specialist.
  6. Participants of the conference assembled to study, discuss and exchange information on the subject in question.
  7. This book deserves to be on the shelf of a programmer.

II. Translate into English:

  1. Я не могу не посочувствовать ему: он потерял отца.
  2. Она не может воспитывать меня все время: это так скучно.
  3. Они не могли не обещать закончить свое исследование.
  4. Нельзя не использовать благоприятные условия для эксперимента.
  5. Его не могли не критиковать за его странные идеи.
  6. Я не мог не обсудить условия соглашения с заказчиками.
  7. Мы не могли не похвалить специалистов в помощи в этом вопросе.

“Translator’s false friends”

Translate the sentences using one of the definitions:

INSTRUCTIVE

Поучительный;

Полезный, целесообразный, наглядный, показательный, иллюстративный, интересный

As tutorial device, it may be instructive to define this concept.

Before starting our analysis, it will be instructive to summarize certain characteristics of the three basic passive methods.

An examination of the chemistry leading to NO2 production is instructive.

It is instructive to apply each of the above derivations to the structure.

It is instructive to consider briefly what change would be effected in the calculated maximum load of the orbit if these coefficients A and B were altered.

Unit 16

Read and translate the text:

Text

Look Behind the Words

Once we learn to smile or frown at any particular label, we tend to be almost blind to the things behind the label. From then on, we accept or reject them on the basis of their labels. We don not look at the individual things. We do not think we need to. We do not try to see how they work or why some people like or dislike them. We do not try to increase our understanding of them. People are not usually able to open their eyes and minds and observe clearly what is behind them. They think they know what things are like without checking. What they think they know blocks them from evaluating sanely. We in an automatic and unreflective way tend to sort out things on a basis of their labels. Only open eyes and open minds will mature us and make real human beings out of us. The snap-judgment attitude with its dogmatic certainly is a disgrace to a human being.

Look Before You Leap

No matter how smart we are, there are some things that we just cannot figure out. Our knowledge is never complete, and we do not know all the factors that will influence what we are doing. And sometimes a single overlooked factor can make the difference between success and failure.

To be successful in the business world we need to check our bright ideas against the environment. Our enthusiasm must be restrained long enough so that we could analyse our ideas critically. Whenever possible, we should not go all-out until we get a chance to test them thoroughly. Do not speak for the facts – make the facts speak for themselves.

Grammar Review

I. Analyse and translate the following sentences:

  1. Investigating the given problem he came to rather interesting conclusions.
  2. He is informed of their having taken the first prize.
  3. Having discussed the matter the sociologists took a definite decision.
  4. He couldn’t help talking about the experiment at the symposium.
  5. Without contemplating he agreed with the other.
  6. He is greatly interested in collecting and analyzing the data.
  7. This achievement founded on empirical principles was the elaboration of a new kind.

II. Translate the sentences:

  1. Говорят, что он – хороший психиатр.
  2. В новой лаборатории, как известно, современное оборудование.
  3. Было обнаружено, что это явление имеет широкое распространение.
  4. Новую систему собираются применить через месяц.
  5. Полагают, что он готовит сообщение о действии лекарств.
  6. Сообщается, что этот программист применил новый метод.
  7. Кажется, что пациент принял слишком большую дозу лекарства.

Phrasal Verbs

DRIVE

Drive along управлять машиной

Drive at клонить к чему-либо

Drive away прогонять, уезжать; рассеивать

Drive in загонять

Drive into вбивать; вдалбливать, растолковывать

Drive on продолжать путь

Drive out выбивать; вытеснять, проехаться в автомобиле

Drive over подъехать

Drive up подъехать, подкатить

Make up the sentences of your own using the verbs.

Unit 17

Read and translate the text:

Text

Train Yourself to Listen

Our silly feelings of false pride often make us unable to acknowledge our ignorance and our mistakes. But in a changing world about which we have incomplete knowledge, sometimes the most intelligent things w can say are: “I don’t know,” and “I made a mistake.” This attitude will count in our favour. People will be able to say of us, ‘He (or she) is big enough to admit a mistake.” If, instead, we insist upon hanging on to our inadequate judgments, we will show that we lack the fairness t be reasonable.

Grammar Review

I. Translate the following sentences paying attention to the word “one”:

  1. Once a stricture is formed, it seems to cause attacks of the disease.
  2. Once a diagnosis is established, the patient should be managed according to the following guidelines.
  3. Once persons at high risk are identified, greater efforts should be made at controlling co-existent risk factors.
  4. Once the decision for transplantation was made, recipients waited from a week to four for a donor organ.

Translate the sentences:

  1. He believes his subjects to have been trained under another psychoanalyst.
  2. They consider psychoanalysis to be very effective in its versatility.
  3. He maintains this constant fear of social contact to be often accompanied by many other negative experiences.
  4. Most men recognize the need for improved communication to be the woman’s responsibility.
  5. He insists on things to be changed for the better for the relationship to work.
  6. She states career burnout to occur over a period of time with everybody.

“Translator’s false friends”

Translate the sentences using one of the definitions:

OPTIMISTIC

Оптимистичный, оптимистический;

Завышенный

To avoid the measurement of an overly optimistic NA, sufficient length of fiber should be used.

The maximum Reynolds numbers are based on an optimistic length.

… neglecting it implies far better regulation than actual, which will generally lend to an optimistic solution.

Unit 18

Read and translate the text:

Text

Prejudice arises when people take a statistical approach to man, or thing. We are prejudiced when we read the labels instead of looking at man or thing. We are prejudiced when we are content with “averaging out”.

All of us carry around in our heads a pack of prejudices. We may be prejudiced against certain races and certain classes. We may prejudiced against people with immigrant heritages. We have political prejudices, religious prejudices, prejudices against people in other parts of the world and in other parts of our own country, and we can even be prejudiced against people in the next town or in another part of our own town. We can have prejudices about red automobiles or modern art.

We get an unfavourable picture in our heads and then proceed blindly as though that picture were adequate to represent all people or things that are included under the label. Or we can get a favourable picture in our heads and then blind ourselves to all sorts of unfavourable aspects of man or thing. We find what we are looking for, and we are looking for what is already in our minds.

The word “prejudice” means to pre-judge. We judge a person by his name or by the labels applied to him. We close our eyes and act in accordance with the ideas inside our heads. We think we know all about the person or thing, and we refuse to check our knowledge. But we must observe man, who stands before us in order to act intelligently and fairly toward him. We do not deal with people in general. We deal with individual people and an individual person may not fit the average idea we have. We must remember that man 1 is not man 2, man 2 is not man 3, etc.

Grammar Review

I. Analyse and translate the following sentences:

  1. To know everything s to know nothing.
  2. The purpose of this book is to provide a clear understanding of his theory.
  3. Many scholars agree nowadays that metaphysics is something to be avoided.
  4. The only evidence to be accepted is that to be tested by experience.
  5. That is true conclusion to be made.
  6. Research to be carried out now is of great importance.
  7. The discovery to be made will be of certain value.

II. Translate the sentences:

  1. Они почувствовали, что атмосфера стала напряженной, и вышел.
  2. Я услышал, что профессор упомянул об этом необъяснимом феномене несколько раз.
  3. Она заметила, как кто-то внимательно изучает ее лицо и взгляд.
  4. Они увидели, как программист приготовился к эксперименту в новых условиях.
  5. Я заметил, что специалисты преодолели все трудности и восстановили моральные силы.
  6. Ученый заметил, как его сотрудники выглядят изможденными и вялыми после сложного эксперимента.
  7. Мы слышали, что он занимает руководящую должность и исследовательском центре.

Phrasal Verbs

GET

Get about распространяться, разъезжать

Get abroad распространяться (о слухах), становиться известным

Get across переправляться, четко излагать (мысль)

Get ahead продвинуться, преуспевать

Get along (with) ладить

Get at придираться; дотянуться; дозвониться

Get away убегать, уезжать

Get back получить обратно; возвращаться

Get by справляться

Get down спускаться; угнетать

Get in прибывать; попасть; пройти (в правление)

Get into войти; садиться; вступить

Get off сойти; снимать

Get on садиться; преуспеть; стареть

Get out выбраться, отделаться

Get over преодолеть

Get round обойти; уговорить

Get through дозвониться

Get to достигать, добираться

Get under гасить, тушить (пожар)

Get up вставать; усиливаться (о пожаре, ветре)

Get up to затевать

Make up the sentences of your own using the verbs.

Unit 19

Read and translate the text:

Text

Water

Water is a chemical compound of oxygen and hydrogen, the latter gas forming two thirds of its volume. It is the most abundant of all chemical compounds, five sevenths of the earth’s surface being covered with water. As we know, water doesn’t burn, on the contrary, it is generally used for putting out the fire. Therefore it seems remarkable that the two gases which it is composed of act in the opposite way: one of them – hydrogen – burns, the second – oxygen – makes things burn mush faster than air does. Hydrogen is the lightest gas known, oxygen being slightly heavier than air.

Water like air is never found quite pure in nature but contains various salts and minerals in solution. Salt water being heavier, some things will float in it which would sink in fresh water, hence it is easier to swim in salt water. When sea water freezes the salt separates from it, ice being quite pure.

The almost endless application of water are such that without it all life would cease. Water is necessary for the existence of man, animals and plants, every living thing containing large amounts of water. Being a solvent of most substances it is indispensable in chemistry and medicine. When used in engineering its great resistance to compression enables it to transmit enormous power. When we drink water it is almost immediately coursing through our system, the body being purified of poison which is carried off in solution. When heated, water changes into an invisible gas; freezing it we get a solid block of crystals. When evaporated it forms clouds from where it falls on the earth as rain or snow; the soil absorbing the water which appears on the surface again in the form of streams to begin a new cycle of evaporation. In its various changes it is indestructible disappearing only to appear again in another form. It goes round and round, the total amount of water on the earth never changing.

Grammar Review

I. Translate the following sentences:

  1. His theory is said to have been developed for half a century.
  2. He is likely to have made a full review of the article.
  3. He proves to be a leading scientist in this field of sociology.
  4. The experiments are reported to have been over successfully.
  5. The translation of the article is certain to be certain to be published next month.
  6. Many foreign delegates appeared to know Russian.
  7. Less attractive personalities are likely to experience less rewards in the social situations.

II. Translate into English:

  1. Данные, обсужденные на семинаре, представляют особый интерес.
  2. Они не могли не согласиться с его точкой зрения, выраженной так нелогично.
  3. Проводя исследование, он случайно натолкнулся на интересный феномен.
  4. Наблюдения, совершенные с помощью специальных методик, дают различные результаты.
  5. Ее заключение, основанное на последних статистических данных, было вполне правильным.
  6. Новое достижение, совершенное в этой сфере, представляет определенный интерес.
  7. Данное взаимодействие является результатом тесного общения.

“Translator’s false friends”

Translate the sentences using one of the definitions:

HISTORICALLY

  1. Исторически
  2. Традиционно, по традиции; 3. Всегда; 4. В прошлом; 5. Первоначально, впервые.

Furthermore, plated-through holes are the historically weak link in the considering operation.

Historically, processors ate tested in the field with diagnostic programs.

Since satellites historically have been power limited …

Historically this experiment was manually operated with the data recorded on a printer.

Unit 20

Read and translate the text:

Text

Communication

Communication is a form of human interaction. People cannot maintain normal life, share experience, work-related and everyday skills without communicating with, and influencing one another. Communication enables people to form a view of the world, reach mutual understanding and find a “common language”. However, it is also an exchange of actions, acts, thoughts and emotions with others, as well as drawing on one’s own inner world – memories, consciousness and aspirations. The “secret” of communication lies in one’s desire and ability to live with other people in harmony and in an atmosphere of good will, generously sharing with them the riches of one’s own heart.

Communication is a combination of education and self-education in which people influence one another without didacticism or moralizing. This makes the issue of the moral content and cultural forms of communication very important.

Genuine human communication is a form of creative activity that helps bring out one’s best qualities. Communication is based on respect for the dignity of others, for basic universal moral standards.

The spoken word is the most meaningful, embracing and expressive means of communication. An ability to talk, listen and converse is an essential condition for mutual understanding and a means checking on the truth or error of one’s own views and ideas.

What might be called the “mute language” of communication of emotions has in its arsenal the look and the gesture that may be warm or offensive, nice or vulgar, covering sympathy or antipathy, while posture, manner in conversation, etc., are also a measure of civilization and breeding. The manner and means of communication have an ethical, humanistic meaning in that they indicate the extent to which one is able to put oneself in place of another. Formation and development of the need for communication is a major task of moral education. It is also a guarantee of proper orientation in the evolution of socialibility, of the standards of communication itself.

Grammar Review

I. Translate the sentences:

  1. Having established interaction between these phenomena they started to describe it.
  2. He received interesting results, his speculation being based on logical analysis.
  3. They knew of his having received a good knowledge of social sciences.
  4. They couldn’t help verifying his theory of theoretical paradigms.
  5. Understanding his starting point is quite necessary.
  6. Religion based on ignorance is an unscientific world outlook.
  7. Recognizing his position true he used his method of analysis in his work.
  8. Having received the necessary data he published the results of his work.

II. Translate into English:

  1. В докладе рассматривается один из важнейших вопросов современной тенденции развития искусства.
  2. В рецензии обращается внимание на тезис, описывающий этой подход ученого.
  3. В научной работе описывается начальный этап исследования.
  4. В рецензируемых статьях иллюстрируются все положения, касающиеся использования научного подхода.
  5. В аннотации последовательно перечислялись основные тезисы научной статьи.
  6. На научной конференции были сделаны интересные сообщения относительно исследуемой темы.

Phrasal Verbs

GO

Go about взяться за; бродить, ходить

Go after искать; находить удовольствие

Go against противоречить

Go ahead продолжать(ся); давай!

Get along (with) идти с кем-то; согласиться с ; сопровождать

Get at бросаться на кого-то; энергично браться за что-то

Get away уходить, уехать

Get back возвращаться; нарушить (обещание)

Get by добираться чем-либо

Get down спускаться; затонуть; садиться (о солнце)

Get far into продолжаться долго

Get in входить; участвовать

Get in for принимать участие, увлекаться

Get for идти; выбирать; наброситься на

Get forth быть опубликованным; участвовать в

Get into войти; расследовать, вдаваться в детали

Get off уходить, испортиться, выстрелить; звонить; выключаться; терять сознание

Get on продолжаться

Get out выйти, погаснуть

Get over пересматривать; повторять

Get round вращаться; запросто прийти в гости

Get through разобрать; проехать; просмотреть

Get together гармонировать

Get under тонуть; исчезать; разоряться; не выдержать испытаний

Get up подниматься; повышаться

Get with сопровождать; сочетаться

Get without обходиться

Make up the sentences of your own using the verbs.


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